Appendix:English pronunciation

O Wiktionary
Gearr leum gu: seòladh, lorg

English[deasaich]

The following tables show the IPA and enPR/AHD symbols which are used to represent the various sounds of the English language. The sounds of Received Pronunciation (RP, UK), General American pronunciation (GenAm, US), Australian English (AuE) and New Zealand English (NZE) are shown.

For vowels in other dialects, see Wikipedia's IPA chart for English.

An image of an old version of these tables is available.

Vowels[deasaich]

This vowel table lists both monophthongs and diphthongs.

IPA enPR / AHD examples
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg RP Flag of the United States.svg GenAm Flag of Canada.svg CanE Flag of Australia.svg AuE Flag of New Zealand.svg NZE
ɑː ɑ ɒ ɐː ä father, palm
æ ɛ ă bad, cat, ran[1][2]
æɹ ɛɹ ăr carry
æɪ æe ā day, pain
ɑː ɑɹ ɐː är arm, bard
ɛə / ɛː(ɹ) ɛɹ âr hair, there[3]
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 e ĕ bed[4]
ɛɹ ĕr merry
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ē ease, see
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ɘ ĭ sit, city, bit
ɪ i city, very, ready
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 roses
ɪə ɪɹ ɪə ĭr, îr near, here, Sirius
aɪ (ʌɪ) ɑe ɑe ī my, rice
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ɒ ɔ Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ŏ not, wasp
əʊ əʉ ɐʉ ō no, go, hope
ɔə oɹ, ɔɹ ɔɹ ōr hoarse
ɔː ɔ ɒ ô law, caught
ɔː ɔɹ ôr horse
ɔɪ oe oi boy, noise
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 o͝o, ŏŏ put, foot
ʊə ʊɹ ʊə ʉə o͝or, ŏŏr poor, tour, tourism
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ʉː o͞o, ōō lose, soon, through
aʊ (ʌʊ) æo ou house, now
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 a ɐ ŭ run, enough, up
ɜː ɝ, əɹ ɝː ɜː ɵː ûr fur, bird
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ɘ ə about
ə ɚ ə ɘ ər winner, enter[5]
  1. Sometimes transcribed AEF: /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the Oxford University Press.
  2. See bad–lad split for more discussion of this vowel in Australian English.
  3. Alternative symbols used in British dictionaries include AEF: /ɛː/ (Oxford University Press) and AEF: /eə/.
  4. Sometimes transcribed AEF: /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  5. Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ] or (for transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations) as [ə(ɹ)].

Consonants[deasaich]

IPA enPR / AHD examples
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 b but, web, rubble
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ch chat, teach, nature
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 d dot, idea, nod
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 f fan, left, enough
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 g get, bag
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 h ham
Teamplaid:IPAchar2[1] hw which
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 j joy, agile, age
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 k cat, tack
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ᴋʜ loch (in Scottish English)
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 l left
Teamplaid:IPAchar[2] l little
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 m man, animal, him
Teamplaid:IPAchar[2] m spasm, prism
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 n note, ant, pan
Teamplaid:IPAchar[2] n hidden
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 ng singer, ring
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 p pen, spin, top, apple
Teamplaid:IPAchar2[3] r run, very
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 s set, list, ice
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 sh ash, sure, ration
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 t ton, butt
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 th thin, nothing, moth
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 th this, father, clothe
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 v voice, navel
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 w wet
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 y yes
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 z zoo, quiz, rose
Teamplaid:IPAchar2 zh vision, treasure
  1. Some phonologists dispute that Teamplaid:IPAchar is a distinct phoneme in English, and use Teamplaid:IPAchar instead.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Some phonologists dispute that Teamplaid:IPAchar, Teamplaid:IPAchar, Teamplaid:IPAchar are distinct phonemes in English, and use Teamplaid:IPAchar, Teamplaid:IPAchar, Teamplaid:IPAchar instead.
  3. Often written Teamplaid:IPAchar, especially in works that cover only English, even though the sound is not a trill.

Other symbols[deasaich]

A stress mark is placed before the syllable that is stressed in IPA and after it in enPR / AHD.

IPA enPR
(AHD)
indicates
Teamplaid:IPAchar (Teamplaid:IPAchara) ʹ (aʹ) primary stress, as in rapping /ˈɹæpɪŋ/
Teamplaid:IPAchar (Teamplaid:IPAchara) ' (a') secondary stress (or sometimes tertiary stress), as in battleship /ˈbætl̩ˌʃɪp/
aTeamplaid:IPAchara a-a division between syllables
 ̩ syllabic consonant, as in ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]
ʔ glottal stop, as in uh-oh /ˈʌʔoʊ/, [ˈʌ̆ʔ˦oʊ˨]

Note: The EnPR and print AHD marks are formatted slightly differently. Online, AHD writes both ', though they do not always represent the same phoneme.

See also[deasaich]

References[deasaich]

External links[deasaich]